AERIAL OBSERVATION STUDY
killer whales (orcas)
Overhead UAV (drone) image of J35 with a fish in her mouth.
Video taken under Center for Whale Research Permit 21238.
Image extracted from the video.
Researchers from the Center for Whale Research and the University of Exeter are using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)/Drones to study the behavior of the Southern Resident orcas from a new perspective.
Until now, research on killer whale social networks has relied on seeing the whales when they surface and recording which whales are together. Looking down into the water from a drone allowed us to see details such as contact between individual whales. Our findings show that even within the resident killer whales’ tight-knit groups, they prefer to interact with specific individuals. It’s like when your mom takes you to a party as a kid: you didn’t choose the party, but you can still choose who to hang out with once you’re there.
— CWR’s Dr. Michael Weiss, lead author of a new CWR-University of Exeter study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, talking about the research results in Age and sex influence social interactions, but not associations, within a killer whale pod.
Two minutes of drone footage of Southern Resident orcas socializing (2019).
Who’s on the Aerial Observation Study Team?
CWR’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
CWR’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
Since 1976, the Center for Whale Research has been conducting observation-based studies of orcas in the Salish Sea. The unique dataset produced by this work has informed conservation efforts in both the USA and Canada and helped us understand these animals’ complex lives, revealing factors that influence survival, reproduction, social structure, and the evolution of this species unique life history.
Our research has established that a lack of salmon is the primary factor constraining the recovery of the Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW) population. However, we still have many gaps in our knowledge.
The most recent NOAA/NMFS Priority Report for the SRKW in 2015 outlined two priority questions for future research:
1) What is causing decreased SRKW reproduction?
2) What is causing increased SRKW mortality?
Understanding individual and group (social) behavior is key to answering both of these questions. Our research objective for the UAV activities will directly address this knowledge gap by recording how individual behavior and the behavior of social groups relate to survival and reproductive success.
Nearly all our knowledge of Southern Resident orca behavior is based on surface observations from boats and shore. However, orcas spend almost all their time submerged and out of sight; this means that we have not been able to document most of these whales’ lives in any detail. Using a UAV/drone gives us the opportunity to get above the whales and look down into their world. We can position our drone, a DJI Matrice 600, hundreds of feet above the whales, and monitor their movements and behaviors as they move through their world without interfering in their activity. Under the right conditions, the UAV can see to a depth of 10 meters underwater, and a lot of behavior happens in this surface zone.
In 2018, we had numerous successful drone flights, documenting a variety of behaviors, from food searching to coordinated travel and foraging to socializing. This data is helping us to understand better social behavior and its consequences in this population, as well as foraging strategies and foraging efficiency and how this relates to survival and reproduction. With this information, we will be able to make future predictions for the health and survival of these amazing animals and inform strategies to recover this endangered population.
In 2019, the CWR-University of Exeter SRKW Aerial Observation Study expanded with funding from the National Environmental Research Council in the United Kingdom. The study became part of a large international project to look at how family life influences rates of aging. The overall project has three subprojects. The first is to develop new theory for how family dynamics influence the rates of aging and changes in behavior across the lifespan invertebrate populations (particularly looking at sex differences). The second project tests the behavioral predictions of this work in the Southern Resident orcas using drone observations. Finally, researchers from the University of Exeter will undertake comparative projects that will assemble data across social mammals to test the generality of the theory developed.
Published scientific/academic papers as a consequence of the Aerial Observation Study research.
Weiss, M. N., Franks, D. W., Giles, D. A., Youngstrom, S., Wasser, S. K., Balcomb, K. C., Ellifrit, D. K., Domenici, P., Cant, M. A., Ellis, S., Nielsen, M. L. K., Grimes, C., and Croft, D. P. (2021). Age and sex influence social interactions, but not associations, within a killer whale pod. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Volume 288 Issue 1953. Full Text.
CWR-University of Exeter RESEARCH
Latest published paper reveals new aspects of the SRKWs unique social structure.
Observing orcas from the air gives a novel look into their social structure.
The Southern Resident killer whales are well known for their complex societies, with whales living in family units referred to as matrilines, which are part of larger units referred to as pods. This June 2021 study from the Center for Whale Research (CWR) and the University of Exeter, Age and sex influence social interactions, but not associations, within a killer whale pod, reveals new aspects of this unique social structure. Read the CWR Blog about about this research.
We were amazed to see how much contact there is between whales—how tactile they are. By adding drones to our toolkit, we have been able to dive into the social lives of these animals as never before.
— CWR and University of Exeter’s Dr. Darren Croft
The Evolution of Sex Differences in Mammalian Social Life Histories
CWR’s Scientific Advisor
(Animal Social Networks) and Professor of Animal Behaviour at the University of Exeter,
Dr. Darren Croft,
summarizes the Aerial Observation Study project:
A still image of SRKWs captured from CWR’s drone video footage:
J35 and J47 touching.
"Understanding why social behavior and life histories have diverged between the sexes in long-lived social mammals, sometimes to an extreme degree, is a key objective in the biological, medical and social sciences. Our research team proposes that differences between the sexes in how males and females interact with related individuals across the lifespan is a major force driving the evolution of sex differences in both social behavior and life history.
In social species, related individuals (kin) often live together in close-knit family groups and individuals can influence the survival and reproductive success of their relatives both by their behavior (cooperative and competitive) and reproductive decisions (if an individual reproduces it will use resources that may negatively impact on the survival and reproductive success of kin). Such interactions between kin are a strong evolutionary force, with individuals gaining indirect benefits (through the genes they share with relatives) by increasing the survival and reproductive success of their kin. For example, kin selection can favor individual strategies that increase the reproductive success of kin, even if this comes at a cost to an individual’s own survival and reproductive success. The opportunity for evolution to be shaped by kin selection is dependent on how and when related individuals interact.
Our pilot work suggests that in many species males and females experience very different patterns of local relatedness across their lifespans (kinship dynamics) due to patterns of dispersal and mating. For example, for some species such as Southern Resident killer whales females are predicted to become more related to their local group with age whereas males, in contrast, are predicted to become less related.
We hypothesize that sex differences in kinship dynamics will be a major force driving the evolution of sex differences in
both (i) social behavior and (ii) life history.
We will determine the role of kinship dynamics in driving the evolution of sex differences in social behavior and life history evolution using a combination of theoretical modeling and empirical data analysis. We will develop a general theory of kinship dynamics and develop new models to predict both the patterns of kinship dynamics and their consequences for the evolution of social life histories in both males and females. Our model will make predictions for patterns of helping and harming in social groups including both behavioral traits (cooperation and conflict) and reproductive traits (e.g., age at first or last reproduction).
We will provide the first test of the behavioral predictions of our new theory by collecting new data on patterns of helping (e.g., babysitting and food sharing) and harming (aggression) in Southern Resident killer whales using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones). Resident killer whales are ideally suited to testing the behavioral predictions of the model - they are predicted to have extreme sex differences in patterns of kinship dynamics and have unexplained sex differences in life history. We will test the life history predictions of the theoretical framework by comparing patterns of sex differences in life history evolution (e.g. patterns of growth, age at first reproduction, age at last reproduction, reproductive investment and longevity) across social mammals which will allow us to determine the role of kinship dynamics in driving the divergence of life histories between the sexes.
Our CWR-University of Exeter research will further our understanding of the evolution of sex differences in life history and social behavior and will leave a new theoretical framework that will provide testable predictions for the evolution of behavior and life-history traits in social mammals, including humans."
Aerial Observation Research
The scientists and others
behind the research.
Drone Data Collection
Dr. Michael Weiss - University of Exeter; CWR Field Biologist and Drone Pilot (FAA licensed commercial UAS pilot)
Other Project Team Members
Dr. Darren Croft - CWR Scientific Advisor (Animal Social Networks) and Professor of Animal Behaviour at the University of ExeterDr. Sam Ellis - Postdoctoral researcher, University of Exeter
Dr. Dan Franks - Reader, Department of Biology, University of York
Mike Cant - Professor of Evolutionary Biology, University of Exeter
Rufus Johnstone - Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge
Dr. Tom Currie - Associate Professor in Cultural Evolution, University of Exeter
Paolo Domenici - National Research Council, Oristano, Italy
The CWR-University of Exeter team operating the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Does the UAV/Drone
disturb the whales?
PLUS UAV/Drone Pilot
Training and Certification.
Before undertaking any flights for the Aerial Observation Study, the permit required the pilots to complete a minimum of 25 hours of flying time and 50 flights with the DJI Matrice 600 Pro to establish its reliability and suitability for the research. The drones have accumulated 60 hours of flying time on 180 research flights. A spotter visually tracks the drone on each flight to ensure safe operation and maintain visual line-of-sight as required by the permit.
The UAV is a non-invasive method for recording behavior, and there is minimal potential for noise disturbance to the SRKW. Recent work has shown that the noise produced by UAVs couples poorly into the water and could only be quantified above the background noise of the recording sites at one-meter depth when flying at altitudes below 10 meters. All of our flights are conducted well above this height (typically 60 meters), and it is likely that the whales are not even aware of the presence of the UAV during our research flights.
The research team uses different models of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for their SRKW studies. The DJI Matrice 600 Pro is used for shore-based flights. It is the larger of the two UAVs; it can be seen from a considerable distance when flying from land. On the CWR research vessel, the team uses a DJI Phantom 4 RTK v2, the smaller of the two DJI models. It’s easily retrieved by the pilot when flying from the research boat. Both UAVs have outstanding designed-in reliability.
More Video and Photographs
A compilation of Aerial Observation Study footage of Southern Resident orcas
taken by CWR drone in 2019 and 2018.